Nicolas Fabre Geffrard was President of Haiti from 1859 -1867. During his presidency many tried to assassinate him.
♦ In the first year of Nicolas's presidency, Guerrier Prophète, began to lay out his plan to overthrow him. Guerrier's plan was overheard by Nicolas's guards and then Guerrier was exiled.
♦ In 1859, Nicolas's daughter was assassinated by Timoleon Vanon.
♦ In 1861, General Legros tried to take over the weaponry storage but was detained by government forces.
♦ In 1862, Etienne Salomon encouraged the people in the countryside to fight Nicolas, but Salomon was shot and killed.
♦ In 1863, Aimé Legros gathered troops to overthrow Nicolas, but he was shot and killed too.
♦ In 1864, the elite community in Port-au-Prince tried to take over the weaponry storage, but the conspirators were later prosecuted and sentenced to jail.
Here are some postcards from Port-au-Prince.
♦ In 1867, his bodyguard tried to assassinate him inside the National Palace.
♦ He survived all of the attempts to assassinate him.
♦ In 1865, Major Sylvain Salnave began his takeover of the North and Artibonite.
♦ Nicolas's troops clashed with the Major's troops. After using the Royal Navy for gunboat diplomacy* with the Major, Nicolas's regime was in ruins, especially financially.
♦ He started fights in the North, West, and South. In 1866, a huge fire destroyed hundreds of homes. The following year Nicolas and his family disguised themselves and fled to Jamaica.
♦ He died in Kingstonon New Years Eve 1878, aged 72.
* In politics, gunboat diplomacyrefers to the pursuit of foreign policy goals through displays of naval power. Showing naval power can both imply or constitute a direct threat of warfare. In America they call it big stick diplomacy.